Month: December 2015

Why Clinical Trials Are So Important in the Medical Profession

sYou have probably heard of people who have taken part in clinical trials over the years, some may have found a successful treatment for their life threatening disease, others may not have been so lucky. This may leave you wondering why clinical trials are so important and how they can make a difference in the medical profession moving forward.

The first reason why clinical trials are so important is that they identify how new potential treatments work. They are distributed to particular people who have chosen to participate, these people are then monitored regularly to identify how the treatment is working, if it making a difference and how they react to the new medication.

Another reason why this testing phase is so imperative before any medication is released to the public is that the developers have to ensure that it is safe. This means the only way they can really identify how it is going to affect the human body is to give it to humans, those with and without serious illnesses, to ensure that it does as it is meant to and can make a positive difference in millions of people’s lives in the future.

During the clinical trial, some participants will be given one dose with others being given another. This is used to identify the best recommended dosage to provide with the medication once released. The aim is to ensure the dosage directions are safe and effective.

Further, you will find that clinical trials give researchers and developers the ability to identify the outcome of their medication or device. Clinical trials are used for medications, medical equipment and so much more and this is designed to help these medicinal companies get their product on the shelf and made available to the market.

It is important to note that clinical trials is only a very small part of the research process and only a handful of these products actually make it to the public, there are millions of projects which aren’t approved and therefore never make it to the hospital or pharmacy shelf.

The process for creating a new medication or product is a long and daunting one and takes many years. It starts with the idea of creation of the product, this is done in a laboratory setting. From here the medication or product is purified and tested in the laboratory. At this stage it is usually test tube testing, which can take anywhere up to six years to perfect. It is then usually tested on animal test subjects to ensure its safety before even making it to human trials.

Those medications that make it to human testing having the highest chance of success. The trial is not signed off unless all the research leading up to that point can identify that the safety factor isn’t compromised. Though it is important to note that clinical trials cannot guarantee your safety and all medications do come with a risk, it is up to you to weigh up the potential benefits and the risks to see if the benefits outweigh the risk and can make a positive difference to your life, before you consider taking part in any study of this nature.

It is important to note that even if you choose to take part in a clinical trial project, there is no guarantee that the product is going to make it to the public. Very few of these products actually get to the public and it’s not a cheap exercise either. It takes years of dedication and passion to get a new medication onto the shelf and made available to those who can benefit from it.

9 Different Ways You Can Break Your Bones and How to Treat Them

dfA fracture means that one or more of your bones have been broken due to an impact with more force or pressure than your bones can support.

Fractures can be open or closed. Open fractures occur when the ends of a broken bone break the skin and are exposed. Closed fractures are also known as simple fractures, and happen when the bone does not break the skin.

Fractures can also be classified by the way the bone breaks:

  • Greenstick fracture: an incomplete fracture in which the bone only breaks on one side, while the other side is merely bent.
  • Torus fracture: an incomplete fracture where the bone is broken on one side and this causes a bump on the other side.
  • Non-displaced fracture: when a bone breaks into even pieces that can be aligned in place afterwards.
  • Displaced fracture: when a bone breaks into pieces that cannot be aligned.
  • Hairline fracture: as the name suggests, this fracture occurs when the bone is broken in a thin crack.
  • Single fracture: when the bone only breaks in one place.
  • Compression fracture: when the bone is crushed.
  • Comminuted fracture: when the bone is crushed or broken in three or more pieces.
  • Segmental fracture: when the bone breaks in two places, leaving a piece of bone unattached.

Regardless of the type of bone fracture, the following symptoms are usually present:

  • Swelling, bruising, or bleeding.
  • Intense pain.
  • Inability or limited ability to move the affected area.
  • Numbness or tingling over the affected area.

What To Do When Someone Breaks a Bone

Immediate medical attention is required for any person who has just suffered from a bone fracture. Call 911 or transport the person to the nearest hospital for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Some of the immediate steps you can take when someone suffers from a broken bone are:

· If the person has suffered major trauma or injury and they are unresponsive or not breathing, begin CPR and call 911.

  • Do not move the person unless absolutely necessary.
  • If there is any bleeding, apply pressure to the wound with a clean cloth to stop the bleeding.
  • Immobilize the broken limb but do not try to realign and push the bone back into place.
  • If there is swelling, wrap an ice pack in a piece of cloth and apply to the affected area to reduce swelling and relieve pain.
  • If the person feels faint or is having trouble breathing, ask them to lie down and elevate the legs in order to treat for shock.

What to Do to Prevent Bone Fractures

Nobody wants to go through the pain and discomfort that come with a broken bone. In addition to taking precautions when practicing activities that put you at risk of bone fractures, such as driving, practicing sports, etc. these are some other measures you can take to prevent breaking one or more bones:

    • Meeting your required daily intake of calcium: Calcium is needed to maintain healthy and strong bones. It is recommended that men and women under 50 intake 1,000 mg of calcium every day, while people over 50 should increase their calcium intake to 1,200 mg every day.


    • Meeting your required daily intake of vitamin D: Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium. The recommended amount of vitamin D for people under 70 years of age is 0.015 mg (or 15mcg). People over 70 should increase their intake of vitamin D to 0.020 mg (or 20mcg).


  • Reduce sodium consumption: The more sodium a person consumes, the more calcium they need in order to excrete urine. Maintain your sodium consumption low so that you can retain the calcium you need for your bones.

Breaking bones can be very painful, so make sure you take the steps necessary to prevent this from happening. However, no one is immune to accidents, so if you or someone you know ever suffers from a broken bone, be sure to look for the symptoms mentioned in this article, follow the instructions provided, and get medical attention as soon as possible.

Key Clinical Research Sites in South America

vThere are many countries in South America that are growing in popularity as ideal areas for medical companies to conduct clinical trials. The reason for the increasing demand is due to a variety of factors, ranging from higher patient retention rates to the interesting disease profile of populations in the region.

South America also benefits from having vast populations, making them an exceptional source of patients that can be recruited to participate in trials. With these attractive benefits in mind, here are a few of the key clinical research sites in South America that pharmaceutical companies around the world are choosing to carry out their studies in.

Some of the major countries that are popular for clinical research trials are Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, all ideal due to their large and dense urban populations. Pharmaceutical companies choosing to outsource their clinical trials to sites in South America may choose either one of these countries or several of them in a multi-centred approach.

Up-and-coming countries that are proving in demand for clinical research trials are other Latin American nations Ecuador, Peru and Chile. These areas are of increasing interest as they offer large populations of otherwise trial-naïve participants, which can mean both a higher recruitment and retention rate.

One of the other key factors that makes South America such a popular place to conduct clinical trials is the fact that the entire region only speaks two first languages: Spanish and Portuguese. This means that it is very simple to effectively run a recruitment and research campaign that is applicable to all nations with minimal cost and administrative difficulty caused by language barriers.

Often, pharmaceutical companies will often take this one step further and only recruit from countries that speak one language – for example, Spanish – choosing a multi-centred approach featuring sites in South America in countries like Ecuador, Mexico, Argentina and Peru, for example.

The most productive sites in South America are found in cities across the region. The continent is quite distinct in the fact it boasts the extremely large urban populations not found in regions such as Europe, for example, whose urban areas fail to offer the same sheer number of potential participants as in Latin America.

Cities and towns are generally extremely populated with little suburban life, with only a few hospitals available to treat patients. This is another reason why clinical trial sites in South America flourish, as they offer a genuine form of alternative treatment for burgeoning city populations.

The area is also becoming an increasingly viable option for trials as many countries are becoming even easier to establish sites in. South America in general offers a mixed bag of regulatory requirements for carrying out clinical trials. Governments in countries such as Argentina and Brazil can take several months to approve clinical trials, although steps are being taken to improve this.

Rapidly-developing nations such as Ecuador and Peru are generally a lot quicker to approve medical studies, with less lengthy wait times than Brazil, Argentina and Mexico. Due to the fact that there are an increasing number of high quality sites and quick approval times, clinical research in these smaller countries is rapidly expanding.

These are some of the key areas for clinical research sites in South America. The more-established countries of Argentina, Brazil and Mexico still hold immense value for pharmaceutical companies looking to carry out trials of their drugs; that said, there are some new players on the scene of interest to pharmaceutical companies around the globe.

The less-established countries of Ecuador, Peru and Chile offer more trial-naïve populations, fast approval times and good quality sites, making them an increasingly attractive option for medical studies. In all cases, urban areas throughout the entire region offer a huge number of benefits to both the clinical research and the companies commissioning it.

Benefits of Participating in Clinical Research Studies

ewThere are numerous reasons why people may decide to take part in clinical research studies throughout the world. There are numerous benefits to making the decision to participate in this type of reason, though it is important to note that it doesn’t come without its share of risks.

The first benefit you may find is if you are suffering from a life threatening illness and none of the treatments you have been given are working, clinical research gives you the opportunity to access treatments that haven’t been made available on the market yet. Bear in mind that before any medication, device or solution is introduced to human test subjects, it goes through years of development and testing, so while there are some risks, these are reduced by the time the option gets to the clinical research stages.

In addition to this, you will find that you are given the opportunity to try new medications and while there may be risks, you have to weigh these up against the potential benefits that you may experience. You do not need to have a life threatening disease to participate in clinical research, in some instances they are looking for healthy test subjects to test on, this is your chance to help thousands of people in the world and make a real difference.

The next thing you will find when you decide to participate in clinical research is that you get the best medical assistance and support available. When you are a participant you enjoy screening, preventative care and testing. You are given ongoing care at all times, something you may not be experiencing with your current medical team. Remember that when it comes to this type of testing there are only a select number of participants chosen, this gives the coordinators more time to focus on you and your own health, rather than your current medical team who may have hundreds, if not thousands, of patients all suffering from a disease similar to your own.

Further, you get to enjoy treatments, which may not be available on the market yet, but may be more effective that all the treatments you have tried to date. Laboratories spend years developing and defining these medications in the hope of curing a disease, relieving pain and so much more. You are one of the first people to give this medication a try, it may be the solution you have been hoping for.

The main benefit why so many people opt to take part in clinical research is it gives them the opportunity to help themselves. When your medical team have decided that there isn’t more they can do, you should always enquire if there are any potential trials taking place which you could apply to. Don’t be disheartened if you are turned down by one or two, as the management teams have very strict guidelines that they must adhere to. Getting into one clinical research trial can make a significant difference to your life, as long as you are advised of the potential risks and you understand what is expected of you during the trial phase.

When clinical research reaches the human trial phase, it is usually carried out in hospitals and clinics, this means that you will attend regular hospital visits to receive your treatment. If the treatment is a medication that you take at home, be prepared to visit the hospital for ongoing monitoring and screening to ensure you are not experiencing any adverse effects.